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Journal of Diabetes ResearchVolume 2016 2016, Article ID 1841690, 10 pages

Review Article

College of Arts and Sciences, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27514, USA

Department of Nephrology, Advanced Institute for Medical Sciences, Second Hospital, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116023, China

Department of Nephrology and Basic Science Laboratory, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350002, China

Received 28 June 2015; Accepted 21 October 2015

Academic Editor: Georgia Fousteri

Copyright © 2016 Zihan Zheng and Feng Zheng. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Diabetic nephropathy DN is a serious complication of diabetes. At its core, DN is a metabolic disorder which can also manifest itself in terms of local inflammation in the kidneys. Such inflammation can then drive the classical markers of fibrosis and structural remodeling. As a result, resolution of immune-mediated inflammation is critical towards achieving a cure for DN. Many immune cells play a part in DN, including key members of both the innate and adaptive immune systems. While these cells were classically understood to primarily function against pathogen insult, it has also become increasingly clear that they also serve a major role as internal sensors of damage. In fact, damage sensing may serve as the impetus for much of the inflammation that occurs in DN, in a vicious positive feedback cycle. Although direct targeting of these proinflammatory cells may be difficult, new approaches that focus on their metabolic profiles may be able to alleviate DN significantly, especially since dysregulation of the local metabolic environment may well be responsible for triggering inflammation to begin with. In this review, the authors consider the metabolic profile of several relevant immune types and discuss their respective roles.

Autor: Zihan Zheng and Feng Zheng



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