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I test Bates- view that trade across ecological divides promoted the development of states in pre-colonial Africa. My main result is that sub-Saharan societies in ecologically diverse environments had more centralized pre-colonial states. I use spatial variation in rainfall to control for possible endogeneity. I construct artificial societies and present narrative evidence to show the results are not due to conquest of trading regions. I also test mechanisms by which trade may have caused states, and find that trade supported class stratification between rulers and ruled.

Item Type: MPRA Paper -

Original Title: Ecology, trade and states in pre-colonial Africa-

Language: English-

Keywords: Africa, ecology, states, trade-

Subjects: N - Economic History > N5 - Agriculture, Natural Resources, Environment, and Extractive Industries > N57 - Africa ; OceaniaO - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth > O1 - Economic Development > O10 - General-

Autor: Fenske, James


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