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Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences

, Volume 68, Issue 15, pp 2499–2512

First Online: 13 February 2011Received: 21 November 2010Revised: 25 December 2010Accepted: 13 January 2011DOI: 10.1007-s00018-011-0631-8

Cite this article as: Lin, JS., Anaclet, C., Sergeeva, O.A. et al. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 2011 68: 2499. doi:10.1007-s00018-011-0631-8


Wakefulness and consciousness depend on perturbation of the cortical soliloquy. Ascending activation of the cerebral cortex is characteristic for both waking and paradoxical REM sleep. These evolutionary conserved activating systems build a network in the brainstem, midbrain, and diencephalon that contains the neurotransmitters and neuromodulators glutamate, histamine, acetylcholine, the catecholamines, serotonin, and some neuropeptides orchestrating the different behavioral states. Inhibition of these waking systems by GABAergic neurons allows sleep. Over the past decades, a prominent role became evident for the histaminergic and the orexinergic neurons as a hypothalamic waking center.

KeywordsWake Sleep Cortical activation Histamine Orexin  Download fulltext PDF

Autor: Jian-Sheng Lin - Christelle Anaclet - Olga A. Sergeeva - Helmut L. Haas


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