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Mycotoxin Research

, Volume 27, Issue 2, pp 97–104

First Online: 12 January 2011Received: 22 May 2010Revised: 16 November 2010Accepted: 17 November 2010DOI: 10.1007-s12550-010-0080-5

Cite this article as: Makun, H.A., Dutton, M.F., Njobeh, P.B. et al. Mycotox Res 2011 27: 97. doi:10.1007-s12550-010-0080-5


Twenty-one rice samples from field ten, store six and market five from the traditional rice-growing areas of Niger State, Nigeria were analysed for aflatoxins AFs, ochratoxin A OTA, zearalenone ZEA, deoxynivalenol DON, fumonisin B1 FB1 and B2 FB2, and patulin PAT by thin-layer chromatography TLC and high-performance liquid chromatography HPLC respectively. T-2 toxin was determined using TLC only. AFs were detected in all samples, at total AF concentrations of 28–372 μg-kg. OTA was found in 66.7% of the samples, also at high concentrations 134–341 μg-kg that have to be considered as critical levels in aspects of nephrotoxicity. ZEA 53.4%, DON 23.8, FB1 14.3% and FB2 4.8% were also found in rice, although at relatively low levels. T-2 toxin was qualitatively detected by TLC in only one sample. Co-contamination with AFs, OTA, and ZEA was very common, and up to five mycotoxins were detected in a single sample. The high AF and OTA levels as found in rice in this study are regarded as unsafe, and multi-occurrences of mycotoxins in the rice samples with possible additive or synergistic toxic effects in consumers raise concern with respect to public health.

KeywordsMycotoxins Co-occurrence Rice Chromatography Nigeria  Download fulltext PDF

Autor: Hussaini Anthony Makun - Michael Francis Dutton - Patrick Berka Njobeh - Mulunda Mwanza - Adamu Y. Kabiru


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