Proposal of a comprehensive definition of modified and other forms of mycotoxins including -masked- mycotoxinsReport as inadecuate

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Mycotoxin Research

, Volume 30, Issue 4, pp 197–205

First Online: 26 June 2014Received: 18 March 2014Revised: 03 June 2014Accepted: 04 June 2014DOI: 10.1007-s12550-014-0203-5

Cite this article as: Rychlik, M., Humpf, HU., Marko, D. et al. Mycotoxin Res 2014 30: 197. doi:10.1007-s12550-014-0203-5


As the term -masked mycotoxins- encompasses only conjugated mycotoxins generated by plants and no other possible forms of mycotoxins and their modifications, we hereby propose for all these forms a systematic definition consisting of four hierarchic levels. The highest level differentiates the free and unmodified forms of mycotoxins from those being matrix-associated and from those being modified in their chemical structure. The following lower levels further differentiate, in particular -modified mycotoxins- into -biologically modified- and -chemically modified- with all variations of metabolites of the former and dividing the latter into -thermally formed- and -non-thermally formed- ones. To harmonize future scientific wording and subsequent legislation, we suggest that the term -modified mycotoxins- should be used in the future and the term -masked mycotoxins- to be kept for the fraction of biologically modified mycotoxins that were conjugated by plants.

KeywordsDefinition Mycotoxins Masked mycotoxins Bound mycotoxins Modified mycotoxins Hidden mycotoxins Conjugated mycotoxins Mycotoxin metabolites Mycotoxin derivatives  Download fulltext PDF

Author: Michael Rychlik - Hans-Ulrich Humpf - Doris Marko - Sven Dänicke - Angela Mally - Franz Berthiller - Horst Klaffke - Nicol


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