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BMC Medicine

, 11:179

Personalized medicine: genes, biomarkers and tailored treatment


Considerable variety in how patients respond to treatments, driven by differences in their geno- and- or phenotypes, calls for a more tailored approach. This is already happening, and will accelerate with developments in personalized medicine. However, its promise has not always translated into improvements in patient care due to the complexities involved. There are also concerns that advice for tests has been reversed, current tests can be costly, there is fragmentation of funding of care, and companies may seek high prices for new targeted drugs. There is a need to integrate current knowledge from a payer’s perspective to provide future guidance. Multiple findings including general considerations; influence of pharmacogenomics on response and toxicity of drug therapies; value of biomarker tests; limitations and costs of tests; and potentially high acquisition costs of new targeted therapies help to give guidance on potential ways forward for all stakeholder groups. Overall, personalized medicine has the potential to revolutionize care. However, current challenges and concerns need to be addressed to enhance its uptake and funding to benefit patients.

KeywordsBiomarkers Drug development Genomics Genotyping Healthcare policy Pharmacogenetics precision medicine Personalized medicine Health authorities Rational use of medicines Reimbursement Targeted treatments AbbreviationsADRsAdverse drug reactions


EGAPPEvaluation of genomic applications in practice and prevention

EGFRepidermal growth factor receptors

FDAUS Food and drug administration

HTAHealth technology assessment

IgEImmunoglobulin E

PARPPoly adenosine diphosphate–ribose polymerase

PMLProgressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy.

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Autor: Brian Godman - Alexander E Finlayson - Parneet K Cheema - Eva Zebedin-Brandl - Inaki Gutiérrez-Ibarluzea - Jan Jones - Ri


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