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Genes and Nutrition

, Volume 8, Issue 6, pp 535–547

First Online: 17 July 2013Received: 15 March 2013Accepted: 22 June 2013DOI: 10.1007-s12263-013-0352-8

Cite this article as: Rukh, G., Sonestedt, E., Melander, O. et al. Genes Nutr 2013 8: 535. doi:10.1007-s12263-013-0352-8


Gene–environment interactions need to be studied to better understand the obesity. We aimed at determining whether genetic susceptibility to obesity associates with diet intake levels and whether diet intakes modify the genetic susceptibility. In 29,480 subjects of the population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer Study MDCS, we first assessed association between 16 genome-wide association studies identified obesity-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms SNPs with body mass index BMI and associated traits. We then conducted association analyses between a genetic risk score GRS comprising of 13 replicated SNPs and the individual SNPs, and relative dietary intakes of fat, carbohydrates, protein, fiber and total energy intake, as well as interaction analyses on BMI and associated traits among 26,107 nondiabetic MDCS participants. GRS associated strongly with increased BMI P = 3.6 × 10, fat mass P = 6.3 × 10 and fat-free mass P = 1.3 × 10. Higher GRS associated with lower total energy intake P = 0.001 and higher intake of fiber P = 2.3 × 10. No significant interactions were observed between GRS and the studied dietary intakes on BMI or related traits. Of the individual SNPs, after correcting for multiple comparisons, NEGR1 rs2815752 associated with diet intakes and BDNF rs4923461 showed interaction with protein intake on BMI. In conclusion, our study does not provide evidence for a major role for macronutrient-, fiber- or total energy intake levels in modifying genetic susceptibility to obesity measured as GRS. However, our data suggest that the number of risk alleles as well as some of the individual obesity loci may have a role in regulation of food and energy intake and that some individual loci may interact with diet.

KeywordsObesity susceptibility loci Fat mass Fat-free mass Gene–diet interactions Macronutrients Genetic risk score Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article doi:10.1007-s12263-013-0352-8 contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Autor: Gull Rukh - Emily Sonestedt - Olle Melander - Bo Hedblad - Elisabet Wirfält - Ulrika Ericson - Marju Orho-Melander


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