Antimicrobial activity, acute toxicity and cytoprotective effect of Crassocephalum vitellinum Benth. S. Moore extract in a rat ethanol-HCl gastric ulcer modelReportar como inadecuado

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BMC Research Notes

, 7:91

First Online: 19 February 2014Received: 11 March 2013Accepted: 13 February 2014DOI: 10.1186-1756-0500-7-91

Cite this article as: Moshi, M.J., Nondo, R.S., Haule, E.E. et al. BMC Res Notes 2014 7: 91. doi:10.1186-1756-0500-7-91


BackgroundA decoction of Crassocephallum vitellinum Benth. S. Moore Asteraceae is used in Kagera Region to treat peptic ulcers. This study seeks to evaluate an aqueous ethanol extract of aerial parts of the plant for safety and efficacy.

MethodsAn 80% ethanolic extract of C. vitellinum at doses of 100, 200, 400 and 800 mg-kg body wt was evaluated for ability to protect Sprague Dawley rats from acidified ethanol gastric ulceration in comparison with 40 mg-kg body wt pantoprazole. The extract and its dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and aqueous fractions were also evaluated for acute toxicity in mice, brine shrimp toxicity, and antibacterial activity against four Gram negative bacteria; Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Salmonella typhi NCTC 8385, Vibrio cholera clinical isolate, and Streptococcus faecalis clinical isolate. The groups of phytochemicals present in the extract were also determined.

ResultsThe ethanolic extract of C. vitellinum dose-dependently protected rat gastric mucosa against ethanol-HCl insult to a maximum of 88.3% at 800 mg-kg body wt, affording the same level of protection as by 40 mg-kg body wt pantoprazole. The extract also exhibited weak antibacterial activity against S. typhi and E. coli, while its ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and aqueous fractions showed weak activity against K. pneumonia, S.typhi, E. coli and V. cholera. The extract was non-toxic to mice up to 5000 mg-kg body wt, and the total extract LC50 = 37.49 μg-ml and the aqueous LC50 = 87.92 μg-ml, ethyl acetate LC50 = 119.45 μg-ml and dichloromethane fractions 88.79 μg-ml showed low toxicity against brine shrimps. Phytochemical screening showed that the extract contains tannins, saponins, flavonoids, and terpenoids.

ConclusionThe results support the claims by traditional healers that a decoction of C.vitellinum has antiulcer activity. The mechanism of cytoprotection is yet to be determined but the phenolic compounds present in the extract may contribute to its protective actions. However, the dose conferring gastro-protection in the rat is too big to be translated to clinical application; thus bioassay guided fractionation to identify active compound-s or fractions is needed, and use of more peptic ulcer models to determine the mechanism for the protective action.

KeywordsCrassocephalum vitellinum Traditional medicine Gastric cytoprotection Antimicrobial Acute, Toxicity AbbreviationsBSTBrine shrimp tests

CIConfidence interval


HClHydrochloric acid


LCLethal concentration

MICMinimum inhibitory concentration

OECDOrganization for economic co-operation and development.

Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article doi:10.1186-1756-0500-7-91 contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Autor: Mainen J Moshi - Ramadhani SO Nondo - Emmanuel E Haule - Rogasian LA Mahunnah - Abdul W Kidukuli


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