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BMC Cardiovascular Disorders

, 9:30

First Online: 17 July 2009Received: 19 July 2008Accepted: 17 July 2009DOI: 10.1186-1471-2261-9-30

Cite this article as: Njelekela, M.A., Mpembeni, R., Muhihi, A. et al. BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2009 9: 30. doi:10.1186-1471-2261-9-30


BackgroundUrban areas in Africa suffer a serious problem with dual burden of infectious diseases and emerging chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases CVD and diabetes which pose a serious threat to population health and health care resources. However in East Africa, there is limited literature in this research area. The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors and their correlates among adults in Temeke, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Results of this study will help inform future research and potential preventive and therapeutic interventions against such chronic diseases.

MethodsThe study design was a cross sectional epidemiological study. A total of 209 participants aged between 44 and 66 years were included in the study. A structured questionnaire was used to evaluate socioeconomic and lifestyle characteristics. Blood samples were collected and analyzed to measure lipid profile and fasting glucose levels. Cardiovascular risk factors were defined using World Health Organization criteria.

ResultsThe age-adjusted prevalence of obesity BMI ≥ 30 was 13% and 35%, among men and women p = 0.0003, respectively. The prevalence of abdominal obesity was 11% and 58% p < 0.0001, and high WHR men: >0.9, women: >0.85 was 51% and 73% p = 0.002 for men and women respectively. Women had 4.3 times greater odds of obesity 95% CI: 1.9–10.1, 14.2–fold increased odds for abdominal adiposity 95% CI: 5.8–34.6, and 2.8 times greater odds of high waist-hip-ratio 95% CI: 1.4–5.7, compared to men. Women had more than three-fold greater odds of having metabolic syndrome p = 0.001 compared to male counterparts, including abdominal obesity, low HDL-cholesterol, and high fasting blood glucose components. In contrast, female participants had 50% lower odds of having hypertension, compared to men 95%CI: 0.3–1.0. Among men, BMI and waist circumference were significantly correlated with blood pressure, triglycerides, total, LDL-, and HDL-cholesterol BMI only, and fasting glucose; in contrast, only blood pressure was positively associated with BMI and waist circumference in women.

ConclusionThe prevalence of CVD risk factors was high in this population, particularly among women. Health promotion, primary prevention, and health screening strategies are needed to reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease in Tanzania.

Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article doi:10.1186-1471-2261-9-30 contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Autor: Marina A Njelekela - Rose Mpembeni - Alfa Muhihi - Nuru L Mligiliche - Donna Spiegelman - Ellen Hertzmark - Enju Liu - Ju


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