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BMC Cardiovascular Disorders

, 15:100

First Online: 16 September 2015Received: 25 April 2015Accepted: 12 September 2015DOI: 10.1186-s12872-015-0093-2

Cite this article as: Lin, LY., Liao, YC., Lin, HF. et al. BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2015 15: 100. doi:10.1186-s12872-015-0093-2


BackgroundArterial stiffness predicts the future risk of macro- and micro-vascular diseases. Only a few studies have reported longitudinal changes. The present study aimed to investigate the progression rate of arterial stiffness and the factors influencing stiffness progression in a Han Chinese population residing in Taiwan.

MethodsThe pulse wave velocity PWV, elasticity modulus Ep and arterial stiffness index β of the common carotid artery were measured in 577 stroke- and myocardial infarction-free subjects at baseline and after an average interval of 4.2 ± 0.8 years. Stepwise multivariate linear regression was conducted to elucidate the predictors of stiffness progression.

ResultsFor both baseline and follow-up data, men had significantly higher values of PWV, Ep and β in comparison to women. The progression rates of PWV, Ep and β were faster in men, but the difference was not statistically significant ΔPWV = 0.20 ± 0.20 and 0.18 ± 0.20 m-s-yr; ΔEp = 8.17 ± 8.65 and 6.98 ± 8.26 kPa-yr; Δβ = 0.70 ± 0.64 and 0.67 ± 0.56 for men and women, respectively. In the multivariate regression analyses, age, baseline stiffness parameters, baseline mean arterial pressure MAP, baseline body mass index BMI and changes in MAP ΔMAP were independent predictors of PWV and Ep progression. There was an inverse correlation between the stiffness parameters at baseline and their progression rate correlation coefficient r = −0.12 to −0.33, p = 0.032–1.6 × 10. Changes in MAP ΔMAP rather than baseline MAP were more strongly associated with PWV progression p = 8.5 × 10 and 1.9 × 10 for ΔMAP and baseline MAP, respectively. Sex-specific analyses disclosed that baseline BMI and changes in BMI ΔBMI were significantly associated with stiffness progression in men p = 0.010–0.026, but not in women.

ConclusionsAging and elevated blood pressure at baseline and during follow-up were the major determinants of stiffness progression in the Han Chinese population. For men, increased baseline BMI and changes in BMI were additional risk factors.

KeywordsArterial stiffness Pulse wave velocity Progression rate Blood pressure Obesity AbbreviationsPWVPulse wave velocity

EPElasticity modulus

βArterial stiffness index

MAPMean arterial pressure

BMIBody mass index

BPBlood pressure

baPWVBrachial-ankle PWV

KMUHKaohsiung Medical University Hospital

TCTotal cholesterol

HDL-CHigh density lipoprotein-cholesterol

FBSFasting blood sugar


CCACommon carotid artery

SDStandard deviation

aPWVAortic pulse wave velocity

IMTIntima-media thickness

Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article doi:10.1186-s12872-015-0093-2 contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Autor: Lien-Ying Lin - Yi-Chu Liao - Hsiu-Fen Lin - Yu-Shan Lee - Reuy-Tay Lin - Chung Y. Hsu - Suh-Hang H. Juo


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