Prevalence and risk factors of kidney disease in urban Karachi: baseline findings from a community cohort studyReport as inadecuate

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BMC Research Notes

, 7:179

First Online: 27 March 2014Received: 17 December 2013Accepted: 20 March 2014DOI: 10.1186-1756-0500-7-179

Cite this article as: Alam, A., Amanullah, F., Baig-Ansari, N. et al. BMC Res Notes 2014 7: 179. doi:10.1186-1756-0500-7-179


BackgroundChronic kidney disease CKD is being increasingly recognized as a leading public health problem. However, there are limited data available with respect to prevalence of CKD in Pakistan, a developing South Asian country. The study presents the baseline findings of prevalence and risk factors for adult kidney disease in a Pakistani community cohort.

MethodsA total of 667 households were enrolled between March 2010 and August 2011 including 461 adults, aged 15 and older. Mild kidney disease was defined as estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate eGFR ≥60 ml-min with microalbuminuria ≥ 30 mg-dl and moderate kidney disease was defined as eGFR <60 ml-min with or without microalbuminuria.

ResultsThe overall prevalence of kidney disease was 16.6% with 8.6% participants having mild kidney disease and 8% having moderate kidney disease. Age was significantly associated with kidney disease p < 0.0001. The frequency of diabetes, hypertension and smoking differed significantly among the three groups, i.e., no kidney disease, mild kidney disease and moderate kidney disease.

ConclusionOur study results suggest that the burden of kidney disease in this population is found considerable and comparable to neighboring developing countries. We believe that these results have critical implications on health and economics of these countries and due to the epidemic of diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, smoking and association with worsening poverty, further rapid growth is expected. There is an urgent need for early recognition and prevention strategies based on risk factors and disease trends determined through longitudinal research.

KeywordsChronic kidney disease Pakistan Prevalence South Asia Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article doi:10.1186-1756-0500-7-179 contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Author: Ashar Alam - Farhana Amanullah - Naila Baig-Ansari - Ismat Lotia-Farrukh - Faisal S Khan


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