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Journal of Translational Medicine

, 12:129

Immunovirology

Abstract

Chronic hepatitis B and C are the leading causes of liver disease and liver transplantation worldwide. Ability to mount an effective immune response against both HBV and HCV is associated with spontaneous clearance of both infections, while an inability to do so leads to chronicity of both infections. To mount an effective immune response, both innate and adaptive immune responses must work in tandem. Hence, developing protective immunity to hepatitis viruses is an important goal in order to reduce the global burden of these two infections and prevent development of long-term complications. In this regard, the initial interactions between the pathogen and immune system are pivotal in determining the effectiveness of immune response and subsequent elimination of pathogens. Toll-like receptors TLRs are important regulators of innate and adaptive immune responses to various pathogens and are often involved in initiating and augmenting effective antiviral immunity. Immune-based therapeutic strategies that specifically induce type I interferon responses are associated with functional cure for both chronic HBV and HCV infections. Precisely, TLR7 stimulation mediates an endogenous type I interferon response, which is critical in development of a broad, effective and protective immunity against hepatitis viruses. This review focuses on anti-viral strategies that involve targeting TLR7 that may lead to development of protective immunity and eradication of hepatitis B.

KeywordsHepatitis C Hepatitis B Toll-like receptors TLR7 Hepatitis treatment AbbreviationsTLRToll-like receptors

PRRPattern recognition receptor

HBVHepatitis B virus

HCVHepatitis C virus

PAMPPathogen associated molecular patterns

ILInterleukin

TIRToll-interleukin-1 receptor

MyD88Myeloid differentiation primary-response protein

IRAKsIL-1R associated kinases

TNFRTumor necrosis factor receptor

TRAF6TNFR-associated factor 6

TGF-BTransforming growth factor B

TAK1TGF-B activated kinase

NF-κBNuclear factor kappa B

IFR7IFN regulatory factor 7

TNF-αTumor necrosis factor alpha

MHCMajor histocompatibility complex

APCAntigen presenting cell

pDCPlasmacytoid dendritic cell

mDCMyeloid dendritic cell

IFNInterferon

TH1Type 1 T helper cells

SVRSustained virologic response

ISGInterferon stimulated genes

RIG-1Retinoic acid inducible gene 1

HBsAgHepatitis B s antigen

NANucleoside analogues

HCCHepatocellular carcinoma

HBeAgHepatitis B e antigen

DAAdirectly acting antiviral.

Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article doi:10.1186-1479-5876-12-129 contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Autor: Emily Funk - Shyam Kottilil - Bruce Gilliam - Rohit Talwani

Fuente: https://link.springer.com/







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