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Reference: Imwong, M, Nakeesathit, S, Day, NP et al., (2011). A review of mixed malaria species infections in anopheline mosquitoes. Malaria Journal, 10 (1), Article: 253.Citable link to this page:


A review of mixed malaria species infections in anopheline mosquitoes.

Abstract: BACKGROUND: In patients with malaria mixed species infections are common and under reported. In PCR studies conducted in Asia mixed infection rates often exceed 20%. In South-East Asia, approximately one third of patients treated for falciparum malaria experience a subsequent Plasmodium vivax infection with a time interval suggesting relapse. It is uncertain whether the two infections are acquired simultaneously or separately. To determine whether mixed species infections in humans are derived from mainly from simultaneous or separate mosquito inoculations the literature on malaria species infection in wild captured anopheline mosquitoes was reviewed. METHODS: The biomedical literature was searched for studies of malaria infection and species identification in trapped wild mosquitoes and artificially infected mosquitoes. The study location and year, collection methods, mosquito species, number of specimens, parasite stage examined (oocysts or sporozoites), and the methods of parasite detection and speciation were tabulated. The entomological results in South East Asia were compared with mixed infection rates documented in patients in clinical studies. RESULTS: In total 63 studies were identified. Individual anopheline mosquitoes were examined for different malaria species in 28 of these. There were 14 studies from Africa; four with species evaluations in individual captured mosquitoes (SEICM). One study, from Ghana, identified a single mixed infection. No mixed infections were identified in Central and South America (seven studies, two SEICM). 42 studies were conducted in Asia and Oceania (11 from Thailand; 27 SEICM). The proportion of anophelines infected with Plasmodium falciparum parasites only was 0.51% (95% CI: 0.44 to 0.57%), for P. vivax only was 0.26% (95% CI: 0.21 to 0.30%), and for mixed P. falciparum and P. vivax infections was 0.036% (95% CI: 0.016 to 0.056%). The proportion of mixed infections in mosquitoes was significantly higher than expected by chance (P < 0.001), but was one fifth of that sufficient to explain the high rates of clinical mixed infections by simultaneous inoculation. CONCLUSIONS: There are relatively few data on mixed infection rates in mosquitoes from Africa. Mixed species malaria infections may be acquired by simultaneous inoculation of sporozoites from multiply infected anopheline mosquitoes but this is relatively unusual. In South East Asia, where P. vivax infection follows P. falciparum malaria in one third of cases, the available entomological information suggests that the majority of these mixed species malaria infections are acquired from separate inoculations.

Peer Review status:Peer reviewedPublication status:PublishedVersion:Publisher's version Funder: Wellcome Trust   Notes:© 2011 Imwong et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Bibliographic Details

Publisher: BioMed Central Ltd.

Publisher Website: http://www.biomedcentral.com/

Journal: Malaria Journalsee more from them

Publication Website: http://www.malariajournal.com/

Issue Date: 2011

pages:Article: 253Identifiers

Urn: uuid:1b59ddf9-5739-496b-993c-01998053dfa4

Source identifier: 172135

Eissn: 1475-2875

Doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2875-10-253

Issn: 1475-2875 Item Description

Type: Journal article;

Language: eng

Version: Publisher's versionKeywords: Animals Plasmodium Plasmodium falciparum Plasmodium vivax Anopheles Biodiversity Tiny URL: pubs:172135


Author: Imwong, M - institutionUniversity of Oxford Oxford, MSD, Clinical Medicine, Thailand-Laos MOP - - - Nakeesathit, S - - - Day, NP

Source: https://ora.ox.ac.uk/objects/uuid:1b59ddf9-5739-496b-993c-01998053dfa4


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