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Before the cognitive shift in educational psychology, research on teaching practices that brought about desired student outcomes were dominated by the process-product research program, a confirmative approach in which researchers attempt to discover relationships between teaching behaviors (the process) and learning outcomes of students (the product). This paper describes those behaviors of teachers which can be observed and altered in actual teaching practice, provides a framework for examining the findings of process-product research, investigates which teaching behaviors go hand-in-hand with good learning outcomes on the part of students, and determines whether and to what extent teaching behaviors bring about required learning outcomes. Findings of this confirmative research approach show that a well-designed lesson might consist of five sections arranged in the following order: (1) discussion of homework and repetition of the subject matter dealt with during the previous lesson; (2) presentation and explanation of new subject matter; (3) opportunity for students to practice new material and for the teacher to provide feedback and corrective teaching; (4) opportunity for students to work independently; and (5) frequent repetition and testing of subject matter. (Contains approximately 40 references.) (LL)

Descriptors: Affective Objectives, Cognitive Objectives, Educational Objectives, Educational Practices, Educational Research, Elementary Secondary Education, Foreign Countries, Higher Education, Learning Strategies, Literature Reviews, Student Behavior, Teacher Behavior, Teacher Effectiveness, Teaching Methods

Welko Tomic, The Open University, P.O. Box 2960, NL-6401 DL Heerlen, The Netherlands.

Autor: Tomic, Welko

Fuente: https://eric.ed.gov/?q=a&ft=on&ff1=dtySince_1992&pg=11161&id=ED364546

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