Retention in Grade: Lethal LessonsReportar como inadecuado

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Despite a growing trend toward retention in grade of low-achieving students and apparent public support for the practice, many educators and psychologists disagree with the perception that flunking is an appropriate response to poor academic performance. Research reported in the past two decades indicates that grade-level retention produces little improvement in student achievement. Some studies presented evidence that students required to repeat a grade actually made less progress than comparable classmates who were promoted. In addition, there are many studies that demonstrate significant psychological damage to children, particularly in terms of lowered self-esteem. Still others associate an increase in the dropout level with retention in grade. In Florida, a number of approaches to improving student achievement without resorting to grade retention have been proposed. Among them are the following: (1) tutorial programs, including peer tutoring, cross-age tutoring, and adult volunteer tutoring, coordinated with classroom instruction; (2) extended basic skills programs, which eliminate non-essentials from the student day, with the additional time being applied to reading, writing, and mathematics; (3) cooperative learning programs; (4) extended-year programs, achieved in Florida because of funding constraints through summer school; and (5) individualized instruction through such technologies as interactive video, word processing, and story starters. (Contains 36 references.) (AC)

Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Academic Failure, Academic Standards, Dropout Rate, Educational Trends, Elementary School Students, Elementary Secondary Education, Grade Repetition, Negative Attitudes, Outcomes of Education, Psychological Needs, Secondary School Students, Self Concept, Self Esteem, Student Attrition, Student Motivation

Autor: Sherwood, Charles


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