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This review of research on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in children resulting from human violence focuses on methodological issues, types of violence, treatment issues, and directions for future research. Literature reviewed is predominantly that published since 1986. An introduction offers background information and examines the biological aspects of trauma. Intrafamilial violence is considered, including experiencing parental abuse or witnessing parental violence. Extrafamilial violence reviewed includes school discipline, sniper attacks, and political violence. The discussion of school discipline identifies two levels of disciplinary practices: routine verbal and physical techniques which cause mild stress in most students, but may cause an extreme reaction due to idiosyncratic factors in some children, and severe stressors in the form of physical and mental abuse used by educators in the name of discipline and motivation. Terr's classification of Type I and Type II disorders is discussed. Treatment issues focus on the need for treatment and specific modalities, including crisis intervention, behavioral treatment, cognitive treatment, family intervention, hypnosis, and residential treatment. A three-way interaction model for conceptualizing factors which affect the manifestation of trauma symptoms is used to help facilitate discussion on the need for future research. (Contains approximately 60 references.) (JDD)

Descriptors: Children, Classification, Discipline, Elementary Secondary Education, Emotional Disturbances, Family Violence, Intervention, Research Methodology, Research Needs, Stress Variables, Symptoms (Individual Disorders), Violence











Autor: Karcher, Christopher Robb

Fuente: https://eric.ed.gov/?q=a&ft=on&ff1=dtySince_1992&pg=9693&id=ED379822



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