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Abstract: The controversy concerning both the definition of the species and methods forinferring the boundaries and numbers of species has occupied biologists forcenturies, and the debate itself has become known as the species problem. Themodern theory of evolution depends on a fundamental redefinition of -species-.Here we show that based on the model of evolutionary continuum combined withfuzzy theory that the evolution system is a uncountable infinite set andspecies is a fuzzy set, the contradiction between discrete biological entitiesand continuous evolution system is solved, i.e. when a species evolved, theindividuals scattered in space but continuously distributed on time sequences.Moreover, the calculation methods for species are suggested both in theory andpractice.



Autor: Yan Huang

Fuente: https://arxiv.org/







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