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Notions of white supremacy, racism, sexism, and patriarchy constitute the power relationships and hierarchical structures of colonialism. Power is accessed when certain cultural forms are made to prevail over others, thus producing racialized and marginalized identities. The will to control what is different is the main tenet of colonialism. European supremacy is based on the civilized/uncivilized dichotomy. The colonizers are depicted as advanced, the colonized as backward. This dichotomy permits ideas about the biological bases of racial inequality, supports dominance and control, and is also used to define male/female power relations. Colonialism is sustained by an intimate relationship with education and government. In Canada, subjugation of Indigenous peoples by armed conflict was followed by the establishment of residential boarding schools and the implementation of the Indian Act of 1876. Resisting colonialism requires that those that are othered, excluded, or discriminated against examine how they participate in their own oppression. Decolonizing the mind summons the capacity to think oneself out of the position of other. Indigenous people have been silenced. They must transform their lives through intellectual awareness, critical self-reflection, and self-analysis, and become critically engaged in the dominant discourse. Cultural revitalization has been a response to colonization, but it is limiting because valorization of the past keeps those dichotomies essential to cultural hegemony intact. Resistance must move from a cultural position to a political one and analyze and challenge the issues of racism and power. (Contains 14 references.) (TD)

Descriptors: Boarding Schools, Canada Natives, Change Strategies, Colonialism, Empowerment, Foreign Countries, Indigenous Populations, Power Structure, Racial Discrimination, Role of Education, Self Concept, Sex Discrimination

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Autor: Weenie, Angelina


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