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This paper explores the similarities between Orff's Schulwerk, Montessori's philosophy, and Gardner's theory of Multiple Intelligences in an effort to explore how to best teach a child. In the late 19th century, specific learning theories began to emerge. Maria Montessori and Carl Orff each developed innovative teaching theories during the first half of the twentieth century. In the 1980s Howard Gardner presented his theory of Multiple Intelligences. The paper begins with a description of the work of each of these educators. The Schulwerk process is described in detail and its four activities of exploration, imitation, improvisation, and creation are discussed. Montessori's method of creating a teaching method to provide the child with all the tools necessary for becoming an adult are then presented. Next, Gardner's seven intelligences of linguistic, musical, logical-mathematical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, and personal are explored. This is followed by a section showing how these three ideas can work together in one classroom to provide a complete and whole education of the mind, body, and spirit. The paper concludes by noting that a child educated in a combination of these three philosophies has the opportunity to develop all of his or her abilities. Contains 10 references. (Author/SD)

Descriptors: Child Development, Classroom Techniques, Early Childhood Education, Educational Strategies, Individualized Instruction, Learning Processes, Learning Theories, Montessori Method, Multiple Intelligences, Orff Method, Teaching Methods

Autor: Calvin-Campbell, Karole


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