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From ancient Greece to the rise of modern science in the 18th and 19th centuries, liberal adult education was a predominant philosophy. Progressivism, which developed in opposition, had the greatest impact on adult education. It viewed the teacher as a guide, consultant, and resource; the learner as responsible for learning in partnership with the teacher; and education as an instrument of social change. Behaviorists took their basic principles from progressives, but emphasized using the scientific method to arrive at knowledge. Many adult programs adopted behavioral objectives and accountability concepts from the behaviorism movement; the greatest impact was in curriculum design and program development. The humanist movement emphasized development of the whole person. Paulo Freire brought radical adult education on the scene; he spoke of using education to bring about social change. In the last 30 years, teachers experienced problems using the pedagogical model that ignored adults' needs and learning styles. Malcolm Knowles fostered the study of andragogy, the art and science of helping adults learn. Andragogical teaching incorporated the following research findings about adults: they desire to apply what they learn immediately and be independent and self-directing; and they need intrinsic motivation. Technological tools changed how to educate and deliver adult education. Distance delivery reached excluded populations. The teacher's new role was to link learners to resources and provide support for self-directed learning. (Contains 21 references.) (YLB)

Descriptors: Access to Education, Adult Education, Adult Learning, Adult Students, Andragogy, Behaviorism, Distance Education, Educational History, Educational Research, Educational Technology, Educational Theories, General Education, Humanism, Humanistic Education, Learning Strategies, Liberalism, Multimedia Instruction, Teacher Role

Autor: Pattison, Sherry

Fuente: https://eric.ed.gov/?q=a&ft=on&ff1=dtySince_1992&pg=7685&id=ED432696

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