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Study tested whether general differences between Asian and European-American cultures (interdependent vs. independent orientation, levels of self-disclosure and conflict in social relationships) would have an effect on the supervisory process of counseling trainees. On the context of weekly group supervision, first-year counseling trainees were assessed every 2 weeks (6 times total) on measures of Working Alliance and Self-Disclosure. As hypothesized, there were significant differences in the temporal patterns of both measures between Caucasian (N=19) and Asian/Asian-American (N=17) trainees. Caucasian supervisees showed a consistently high level of Self-Disclosure and a characteristic high-low-high pattern of Working Alliance. In contrast, Asian supervisees showed a gradually increasing level of Self-Disclosure and a more stable level of Working Alliance. It was noted that the patterns of Working Alliance discussed in the counseling literature were typical of the Caucasian supervisees, but not the Asian supervisees. This result highlights the fact that the traits associated with good supervisees (openness, comfortable expressing conflict) come out of Western socio-cultural norms. It is recommended that supervisors take cultural differences into account when working with and evaluating the progress of their supervisees. (Contains 21 references, 3 figures, and an appendix of the test instruments.) (Author/JDM)

Descriptors: Asian American Students, Counselor Training, Cultural Differences, Cultural Traits, Higher Education, Self Disclosure (Individuals), Supervision, Supervisor Supervisee Relationship

Autor: Carter, John W.; Pak, Jenny H.; Goodyear, Rodney K.


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