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Literacy Teaching and Learning, v7 n1-2 p91-114 2003

In this article, Marilyn Chapman provides educators and others interested in early literacy with important information about phonemic awareness to help them make decisions about what to do in their schools. She begins with an explanation of phonemic awareness and how it relates to other aspects of literacy development such as phonological awareness and metalinguistic awareness (concepts of print). Next she explains key findings from research in order to address some of the most frequent claims about phonemic awareness and clarify what the research actually shows about phonemic awareness. She also describes a research-based developmental sequence to help educators determine age-appropriate expectations about phonemic awareness and related concepts and suggests strategies for assessment. This is followed by a discussion of classroom-based strategies for fostering children's phonemic awareness and related phonological skills through meaning-centered classroom activities that help children connect these skills to real reading and writing, particularly the importance of language play and the use of invented spelling. Finally, she provides suggestions for intervention for children who need additional support. (Contains 1 figure.)

Descriptors: Class Activities, Invented Spelling, Learning Activities, Phonemics, Metalinguistics, Phonological Awareness, Phonemic Awareness, Emergent Literacy, Reading Instruction, Reading Achievement, Teaching Methods, Intervention

Reading Recovery Council of North America. 500 West Wilson Bridge Road Suite 250, Worthington, OH 43085. Tel: 614-310-7323; Fax: 614-310-7345; Web site:

Autor: Chapman, Marilyn L.


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