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This paper discusses research on bilingualism, describing how language development proceeds under exceptional circumstances (for example, when processing must be shifted to another modality, and in abnormal development of one kind or another). It examines exceptional bilingualism, focusing on research on deafness (e.g., hearing children of deaf parents, the polyglot savant Christopher, and sign language genesis among previously isolated deaf children in Nicaragua). Next, it discusses early differentiation in childhood bilingualism, highlighting evidence accumulating against the hypothesis that a single unitary language system extends for a prolonged period of time prior to the separation of languages. The third section discusses codeswitching and linguistic borrowing, noting that findings point to an early convergence with adult codeswitching norms during the preschool years. The fourth section critiques a "wholistic" model. The paper proposes a model of modular bilingual competence based on an extension of Jackendoff's (1998) Tripartite Parallel Architecture (TPA). Following the TPA model, the bilingual version is intended to make for a close match with a model of bilingual proficiency--how the linguistic components and their interfaces are deployed in actual language use and how the processing of L1 and L2 fits into a broader mental organization that accounts for meaningful comprehension and expression. (Contains 53 references.) (SM)

Descriptors: Bilingualism, Children, Code Switching (Language), Language Proficiency, Linguistic Borrowing, Transfer of Training











Autor: Francis, Norbert

Fuente: https://eric.ed.gov/?q=a&ft=on&ff1=dtySince_1992&pg=4988&id=ED479087







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