Use of School-Based One-to-One Aides for Children Following Traumatic Brain Injury: A Proposed Practice ModelReport as inadecuate

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Physical Disabilities: Education and Related Services, v24 n1 p5-22 Fall 2005

One-to-one aides can be an important intervention resource for the reintegration of children into school following traumatic brain injury (TBI). School-based one-to-one aides are typically paraprofessionals assigned to monitor children with TBI throughout the school day. This intervention allows for a continuous feedback and reinforcement schedule to address problematic behavior. Potential drawbacks of this resource, however, include cost, role confusion, and increased dependence upon the one-to-one aide to maintain classroom functioning. Intervention models and goal-planning strategies are needed to help ensure that one-to-one aides intervene in a cost-effective, time-limited manner that contribute to the reacquisition of functional classroom skills as well as decreased reliance upon the one-to-one aide for behavioral control. We present a model for conceptualizing the use of one-to-one aides in the classroom, and discuss intervention strategies to address common problems observed in children following TBI. This model is based upon our combined experience in school reentry following TBI as well as a current understanding of executive functioning, with an emphasis on addressing potential needs in behavioral regulation and goal-directed action. Additionally, general guidelines for the utilization of one-to-one aide in the classroom are proposed. (Contains 6 figures.)

Descriptors: Head Injuries, Neurological Impairments, Reentry Students, School Aides, Intervention, Models, Pupil Personnel Services, Goal Orientation, Guidelines

Division for Physical and Health Disabilities, Council for Exceptional Children. 1110 North Glebe Road Suite 300, Arlington, VA 22201. Tel: 888-232-7733; Fax: 703-264-9494; e-mail: barbara.kulik[at]; Web site:

Author: Zabel, T. Andrew; Gray, Robert M.; Gardner, Julie; Ackerman, John


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