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International Education Journal, v6 n5 p626-634 Dec 2005

Extra classes are increasingly observed in both developed and developing countries. In Vietnam, a country where education reforms are at their height, extra classes are proliferating and have become a concern to society and the government. Although the government has banned extra classes that are independent of school administration, teachers often run home-based classes to supplement their income. This paper examines the extent and characteristics of extra classes among eight-year-old children, and examines the association between taking extra classes and learning outcomes (numeracy, reading, and writing skills). (Contains 7 tables, 3 figures and 2 footnotes.)

Descriptors: Elementary School Students, School Administration, Educational Change, Foreign Countries, Writing Skills, Income, Teacher Salaries, Outcomes of Education, Numeracy, Reading Skills, Costs, Family Environment, Time Factors (Learning), Supplementary Education, Laws

Shannon Research Press. Available from: Australian and New Zealand Comparative and International Education Society. ANZCIES Secretariat, Curtin University, Box U1987, Perth, WA Australia. Tel: +61-8-9266-7106; Fax: +61-8-9266-3222; e-mail: editor[at]; Web site:

Autor: Ha, Tran Thu; Harpham, Trudy


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