Structural brain plasticity induced by physical training in adults affected by aging or disease related impairments: a systematic reviewReportar como inadecuado

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(2015)Manual Therapy, European congress, Abstracts.p.71-71 Mark abstract Background: Structural brain plasticity is observed as a consequence of alterations in input/behavior or of disease. For instance aging is associated with structural decline of the brain, and structural brain alterations have been identified in certain medical pathologies. While physical exercise has a positive impact on function, health status and quality of life in those affected by disease or neurodegenerative related deteriorations, the question remains if structural plasticity of the brain underlies these beneficial effects.Aims: To summarize the current evidence concerning the effect of physical therapy/training on the structure of the brain in elderly and adults affected by disease related impairments, and whether exercise training induced changes in brain structure are associated with improvements in functional outcome.Methods: A systematic literature review following the PRISMA-guidelines was performed.Results: Sixteen articles we included, from which 5 examined the effect of physical training in healthy elderly adults and 11 in patients suffering from medical conditions. Failing to blind participants and therapist(s), not accounting for confounders, and incomplete data reporting were the most frequent causes for high risk of bias.Conclusions: There is strong evidence for increased gray matter (GM) volume in prefrontal cortex, temporal lobe (hippocampus) and supplementary motor area after aerobic training, and moderate evidence for increased GM volume in sensory & motor cortices and temporal lobe (hippocampus) after pathology-specific training. General exercise programs and resistance training do not increase GM volume. There is weak evidence supporting cortical thickness increases after pathology specific training, but not following aerobic and general exercise programs. In healthy elderly, aerobic exercise is neuroprotective and increases both GM and white mater (WM) volume. Regarding WM microstructural reorganization no clear conclusions can be drawn. The observed volumetric brain changes are related to post-training improvements in physical or cognitive performance, indicating improvements in functionality due to training are subserved by structural brain plasticity.

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Autor: Jessica Van Oosterwijck , Evy Dhondt , Karen Caeyenberghs , LIESELOT BURGGRAEVE and Lieven Danneels



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