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The development of art education in Pakistan over the last five decades is explored through three major phases: Arts as traditional crafts together with proficiency in painting and calligraphy. Such skills; somewhat existed in academies but, were then transferred through apprenticeship system. Arts in the academies; the first turning point, that focused on the ability of drawing in the school level while fine arts and design in the college and university levels. Art was then taught on Western modules while sidelining traditional arts and crafts. Art as industry along with professional training in traditional crafts within the frame of discipline-based art education. This contemporary yet important phase of art education was observed only when ideas of art and design reappeared with a new twist and titles. The changing perspective of art education can be interpreted more clearly by examining the curricula; particularly in higher education, and its function in society as well as in the market-place. [An earlier version of this paper was presented at the "International Conference on the Role of Academic Staff Association in the Promotion of Higher Education" (Bara Gali, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, Jun 6-8, 2013).]

Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Art Education, Painting (Visual Arts), Educational Development, Handicrafts, Design, Apprenticeships, Western Civilization, Teaching Methods, Professional Education, Educational Change, Fine Arts, Freehand Drawing, Industry, Curriculum Evaluation, Higher Education, Educational Trends, Trend Analysis





Autor: Khan, Muhammad Sher Ali

Fuente: https://eric.ed.gov/?q=a&ft=on&ff1=dtySince_1992&pg=4574&id=ED555254



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