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New Horizons in Education, v59 n1 p79-94 May 2011

Background: Prior to the 1984 Sino-British Joint Declaration, the civic education were characterized by denationalization and depoliticization. After the Joint Declaration, many of the conflicts emerged between the national interests advocated by the nationalistic camp and the Hong Kong interests promoted by the Liberal camp in the newly politicized Hong Kong not only unfolded that citizenship and national identity conceptually compartmentalized into unrelated ideas but also redefined civic education in such a way as to juxtapose and include both citizenship education and national education. The teachers' paradigms of the "China Today" module were explored because the module is directly related to both citizenship education and national education. Aim: This study is to examine teachers' paradigms of the "China Today" module through their national attitude and their implementation in informal and nonformal education. Sample: One secondary teacher taught the module of "China Today" a year ago and three secondary teachers are teaching the same module. As for methods, questionnaires and semi-structured interviews were used to assess the teachers' perception and practices. Results: Data revealed that the national attitude of the CSS1 teacher can be described as a cultural patriot; the CSS2 teacher, critical patriot; the CSS3 teacher, cultural nationalist or cultural patriot; the CSS4, critically cultural patriot. Conclusion: The critical and cultural stances are not unrelated. "Critical" implies something about the evaluative framework of the teachers, while "cultural" understood in Confucian, World citizenship, Democracy or their combination terms, could be the philosophical foundation of an evaluative framework. In other words, the CSS1 teacher predominantly adopted the Confucianism as his evaluative framework in patriotism and world citizenship in nationalism; the CSS2 teacher, the concept of world citizenship in both patriotism and nationalism; the CSS3 teacher and the CSS4 teacher, Confucianism in both patriotism and nationalism. Only the CSS2 and CSS3 teachers carried out the informal and nonformal education. Thus, motivational and behavioral components of citizenship as volition are not yet part of the CSS1 and CSS4 teachers' (cognitive) evaluative frameworks. (Contains 7 tables.)

Descriptors: Nonformal Education, Nationalism, Citizenship, Democracy, Citizenship Education, Confucianism, Foreign Countries, Semi Structured Interviews, Questionnaires, Interests, Teacher Attitudes, Beliefs, Cultural Education, Politics of Education, Informal Education, Teaching Methods, Educational Objectives, Learning Modules, Citizenship Responsibility, Democratic Values, Program Implementation, Educational Policy

Hong Kong Teachers' Association. 242 Nathan Road, National Court 7/F, Kowloon, Hong Kong. Tel: +852-2367-3420; Fax: +852-2722-4813; e-mail: hkta1934[at]; Web site:

Autor: Tak-sang, Dick Yau


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