La Lucha Continua: Becoming a Bilingual Teacher in the Era of Praxis IIReport as inadecuate

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Multicultural Education, v16 n3 p18-23 Spr 2009

This article provides portraits of two women on professional journeys to become bilingual teachers. Stacie Thao was born in Thailand. Nancy Aguilar was born in California, and spent some of her childhood in Mexico. Stacie's first language is Hmong, while Nancy's is Spanish. Each learned English in school, and each helped their immigrant parents navigate the world of U.S. teachers, doctors, and daily life. As participants in the University of Wisconsin Oshkosh teacher preparation program, Stacie and Nancy have enjoyed great academic success, drawing from their own lives and extensive experiences working with immigrant children and families. Each student has had to face a final barrier to teacher licensure--the Praxis II exam. In spite of their many skills, their academic achievement, and their strong relationships with schools, Nancy and Stacie cannot be licensed to teach unless they pass this exam. The authors discuss the process of becoming a bilingual teacher in the era of Praxis II and present some recommendations for teacher preparation programs, school districts, state and federal policy makers and bilingual teachers and their allies.

Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Foreign Countries, Bilingual Teachers, Immigrants, Bilingualism, Bilingual Education, Profiles, Preservice Teachers, Prior Learning, Barriers, Teacher Certification, Standardized Tests, English (Second Language), Bilingual Students, Teacher Qualifications, Personal Narratives

Caddo Gap Press. 3145 Geary Boulevard PMB 275, San Francisco, CA 94118. Tel: 415-666-3012; Fax: 415-666-3552; e-mail: caddogap[at]; Web site:

Author: Hones, Donald F.; Aguilar, Nancy; Thao, Stacie


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