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TESL-EJ, v20 n3 Nov 2016

While many teachers and teacher educators in the United States K-12 system acknowledge that the English language learners (ELLs) in our schools need modifications and accommodations to help them succeed in school, few attempt to parse out how different types of accommodations may affect learning in the mainstream classroom, specifically linguistic and instructional accommodations. In this study, 156 ESL (English as a second language) and mainstream teachers were asked about their knowledge of and level of self-efficacy concerning linguistic and instructional accommodations. Results showed that, while most participants acknowledged that the distinction is important, many were not comfortable defining or implementing these specific types of accommodations. This article is an attempt to examine how mainstream teachers feel about these two different types of accommodations needed by ELLs. The authors attempt to examine how teachers view both instructional and linguistic accommodations and establish surface level validity for this distinction and document the need for teachers, especially mainstream teachers, to be aware of and actively design lessons that include these separate accommodations.

Descriptors: English Language Learners, Validity, Teaching Methods, Academic Achievement, Mainstreaming, Classroom Techniques, English (Second Language), Second Language Learning, Instructional Design, Teacher Attitudes, Self Efficacy, Nonstandard Dialects, Language Teachers, Elementary School Teachers, Elementary School Students, Online Surveys, Teacher Surveys

TESL-EJ. e-mail: editor[at]; Web site:

Autor: Pappamihiel, N. Eleni; Lynn, C. Allen


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