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Journal of Education and Practice, v6 n19 p57-63 2015

Reading difficulties are experienced by children either because they fail to decode the words and thus are unable to comprehend the text or simply fail to comprehend the text even if they are able to decode the words and read them out. Failure in word decoding results from a failure in phonological coding of written information, whereas, reading comprehension difficulties emerge out of difficulties in focusing on relevant information, perceiving the interrelationship among obtained information, strategic thinking, lack of vocabulary knowledge, inability to make inferences and lack of reflective knowledge of language while reading. Within the framework PASS model of intelligence, word reading has been found to be depending on successive processing, particularly at earlier grades, while reading comprehension depends primarily on simultaneous processing at any level. Planning and attention, on the other hand, are found to be essential at all levels of reading. The PASS Reading Enhancement Programme (PREP) and Cognitive Enhancement Training (COGENT) which are based on the PASS theory of intelligence, help remediate the word decoding and reading comprehension skills of children by improving the underlying cognitive processes using inductive method and discovery learning and have been proved to be more effective than the programmes based on direct instruction method. School psychologists and teachers, may take this as a challenge and help improve the reading skills of poor readers.

Descriptors: Remedial Reading, Reading Difficulties, Children, Decoding (Reading), Reading Comprehension, Phonological Awareness, Reading Programs, Cognitive Processes, Logical Thinking, Discovery Learning, Reading Instruction, Teaching Methods, Reading Skills, Reading Improvement, Intelligence, Learning Theories

IISTE. No 1 Central, Hong Kong Island, Hong Kong SAR. Tel: +852-39485948; e-mail: JEP[at]; Web site:

Autor: Mahapatra, Shamita


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