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Journal of Adult Education, v40 n1 p19-22 2011

Likert scales are useful in social science and attitude research projects. The General Self-Efficacy Exam is a test used to determine whether factors in educational settings affect participant's learning self-efficacy. The original instrument had 10 efficacy items and used a 4-point Likert scale. The Cronbach's alphas for the original test ranged from 0.76 to 0.90. A 5-item Likert scale was created from this instrument by first adding a "3 = neutral/undecided" option and also by adding five negatively-worded items to the instrument. The instrument was piloted with 20 participants. The Cronbach's alpha for this pilot study was 0.87. The instrument was subsequently used in a large research study, and the Cronbach's alpha was found to be 0.88. This yielded an instrument that showed strong internal consistency.

Descriptors: Self Efficacy, Social Sciences, Likert Scales, Measures (Individuals), Replication (Evaluation), Item Analysis, Attitude Measures, Research Projects, Questionnaires, Evaluation Research

Mountain Plains Adult Education Association. c/o Adult Learning Center, 815 Front Street, Helena, MT 59602. Tel: 406-324-2118; Web site:

Autor: Croasmun, James T.; Ostrom, Lee


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