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Iranian Journal of Language Teaching Research, v2 n1 p99-118 Jan 2014

This study is an attempt to investigate the effect of direct and indirect feedback on the writing performance of Iranian learners of Japanese as a foreign language. During one academic semester, three indirect feedback types including underlining, coding and translation were used as well as direct type of feedback in order to see which one makes a difference in the written essays of students. The study targeted the impact of these feedback types on the correct usage of prepositions, adjective and noun phrases. Sixty students participated in the study. They were divided into control and experimental group; both were asked to write expository essays each session during a 10-week period; the experimental group were given feedback, either direct or indirect, every other session. Independent samples t-test showed that there is a significant difference between groups with the experimental group having a higher mean of accuracy in the use of three linguistic categories. Having time series design, we conducted repeated measure ANOVA which showed that just direct feedback enhanced the linguistic aspect of written essays of students with indirect feedback having little or no role to play in writing practice.

Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Second Language Learning, Second Language Instruction, Japanese, Feedback (Response), Written Language, Accuracy, Writing (Composition), Writing Evaluation, Essays, Language Usage, Form Classes (Languages), Nouns, Phrase Structure, Control Groups, Experimental Groups, Comparative Analysis, Statistical Analysis, Scores, Correlation, Interrater Reliability, Error Correction, Pretests Posttests

Urmia University Press. Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Urmia, 165, Iran; Tel: +98-44-32752741; Fax: +98-44-32752746; e-mail: info[at]; Web site:

Author: Shirazi, Masoumeh Ahmadi; Shekarabi, Zeinab


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