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Taiwan Journal of TESOL, v14 n1 p1-36 2017

The present study investigated how self-related English learning motivation among Taiwanese adolescent learners differs between students who only receive English instruction in formal schooling and those who have additional private tutoring. A total of 1,698 teenage English learners in public secondary schools across Taiwan completed a self-reported questionnaire based on the "L2 motivational self-system theory" (Dörnyei, 2005, 2009). The results showed that students who had additional tutoring had a significantly stronger intention to learn English and exhibited a higher frequency of English learning behaviors compared with those who only received English instruction in the mainstream. Regression analyses revealed similarities and differences between the motivational profiles and self-conceptualizations of those with and without private tutoring, revealing that "ought-to self," "learning attitudes," and "learning experiences" were prominent predictors of learning motivation for both groups. For students without tutoring, the influence of prevention-based instrumentality was found in their intention to invest effort and their perceived motivated learning behaviors. While the motivational power of "ought-to self" was observed in both groups, "ideal self" was only a pertinent contributory factor of intended effort in those who had tutoring. The study highlights the importance of considering learning experiences across diverse learning contexts in L2 motivation research.

Descriptors: English (Second Language), Second Language Learning, Second Language Instruction, Tutoring, Prevention, Learning Motivation, Secondary School Students, Questionnaires, Student Attitudes, Self Concept, Profiles, Comparative Analysis, Learning Experience, Foreign Countries, Factor Analysis, Multiple Regression Analysis

National Chengchi University Department of English. 64 Sec 2 ZhiNan Road, Wenshan District, Taipei 11605, Taiwan, R.O.C. Tel: 886-2-2938-7248; Fax: 886-2-2939-0510; e-mail: tjtesol[at]; Web site:

Autor: Huang, Hung-Tzu


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