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Neurology and Therapy

, Volume 6, Supplement 1, pp 57–68

First Online: 21 July 2017Received: 24 February 2017

Abstract

Synaptic dysfunction is thought to play important roles in the pathophysiology of many neurological diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and schizophrenia. Over the past few decades, there have been systematic efforts to collect postmortem brain tissues via autopsies, leading to the establishment of dozens of human brain banks around the world. From cryopreserved human brain tissues, it is possible to isolate detached-and-resealed synaptic terminals termed synaptosomes, which remain metabolically and enzymatically active. Synaptosomes have become important model systems for studying human synaptic functions, being much more accessible than ex vivo brain slices or primary neuronal cultures. Here we review recent advances in the establishment of human brain banks, the isolation of synaptosomes, their biological activities, and various analytical techniques for investigating their biochemical and ultrastructural properties. There are unique insights to be gained by directly examining human synaptosomes, which cannot be substituted by animal models. We will also discuss how human synaptosome research has contributed to better understanding of neurological disorders, especially Alzheimer’s disease.

KeywordsBrain bank Neurochemistry Neurodegeneration Neuron Subcellular fractionation Synapse Enhanced contentTo view enhanced content for this article go to http:-www.medengine.com-Redeem-CAD8F06039796B6E.

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Autor: Jia-Fong Jhou - Hwan-Ching Tai

Fuente: https://link.springer.com/







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