Phylogeny, expression patterns and regulation of DNA Methyltransferases in early development of the flatfish, Solea senegalensisReportar como inadecuado

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BMC Developmental Biology

, 17:11

Early development


BackgroundThe identification of DNA methyltransferases Dnmt expression patterns during development and their regulation is important to understand the epigenetic mechanisms that modulate larval plasticity in marine fish. In this study, dnmt1 and dnmt3 paralogs were identified in the flatfish Solea senegalensis and expression patterns in early developmental stages and juveniles were determined. Additionally, the regulation of Dnmt transcription by a specific inhibitor 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine and temperature was evaluated.

ResultsFive paralog genes of dnmt3, namely dnmt3aa, dnmt3ab, dnmt3ba, dnmt3bb.1 and dnmt3bb.2 and one gene for dnmt1 were identified. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the dnmt gene family was highly conserved in teleosts and three fish-specific genes, dnmt3aa, dnmt3ba and dnmt3bb.2 have evolved. The spatio-temporal expression patterns of four dnmts dnmt1, dnmt3aa, dnmt3ab and dnmt3bb.1 were different in early larval stages although all of them reduced expression with the age and were detected in neural organs and dnmt3aa appeared specific to somites. In juveniles, the four dnmt genes were expressed in brain and hematopoietic tissues such as kidney, spleen and gills. Treatment of sole embryos with 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine down-regulated dntm1 and up-regulated dntm3aa. Moreover, in lecithotrophic larval stages, dnmt3aa and dnmt3ab were temperature sensitive and their expression was higher in larvae incubated at 16 °C relative to 20 °C.

ConclusionFive dnmt3 and one dnmt1 paralog were identified in sole and their distinct developmental and tissue-specific expression patterns indicate that they may have different roles during development. The inhibitor 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine modified the transcript abundance of dntm1 and dntm3aa in embryos, which suggests that a regulatory feedback mechanism exists for these genes. The impact of thermal regime on expression levels of dnmt3aa and dnmt3ab in lecithotrophic larval stages suggests that these paralogs might be involved in thermal programing.

KeywordsSolea senegalensis DNA methyltransferases Thermal programming Gene expression Abbreviations5-AzaCdR5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine



bhBranchial arches


CDHCumulative degree-hours

cmzCiliary marginal zone

dmDorsal midbrain


dphDays post-hatch



fmbForebrain-midbrain boundary

glcGanglion cell layer


hpfHours post-fecundation


inlInner nuclear layer

iplInner plexiform layer

MABMalic acid buffer

MABTrMAB + 0.1% TritonX-100


mhbMidbrain-hindbrain boundary


NBTNitro blue tetrazolium

pd.Pronephric duct

pfPectoral fin buds



scSpinal cord



WISHFor whole-mount in situ hybridization

Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article doi:10.1186-s12861-017-0154-0 contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Autor: Joana Firmino - Carlos Carballo - Paula Armesto - Marco A. Campinho - Deborah M. Power - Manuel Manchado


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