Identification of dust storm origin in South –West of IranReport as inadecuate

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Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering

, 15:16

First Online: 17 July 2017Received: 22 October 2016Accepted: 03 July 2017


BackgroundDeserts are the main sources of emitted dust, and are highly responsive to wind erosion. Low content of soil moisture and lack of vegetation cover lead to fine particle’s release. One of the semi-arid bare lands in Iran, located in the South-West of Iran in Khoozestan province, was selected to investigate Sand and Dust storm potential.

MethodsThis paper focused on the metrological parameters of the sampling site, their changes and the relationship between these changes and dust storm occurrence, estimation of Reconaissance Drought Index, the Atterberg limits of soil samples and their relation with soil erosion ability, the chemical composition, size distribution of soil and airborne dust samples, and estimation of vertical mass flux by COMSALT through considering the effect of saffman force and interparticle cohesion forces during warm period April–September in 2010. The chemical compositions are measured with X-ray fluorescence, Atomic absorption spectrophotometer and X-ray diffraction. The particle size distribution analysis was conducted by using Laser particle size and sieve techniques.

ResultsThere was a strong negative correlation between dust storm occurrence and annual and seasonal rainfall and relative humidity. Positive strong correlation between annual and seasonal maximum temperature and dust storm frequency was seen. Estimation of RDIst in the studied period showed an extremely dry condition. Using the results of particle size distribution and soil consistency, the weak structure of soil was represented. X-ray diffraction analyses of soil and dust samples showed that soil mineralogy was dominated mainly by Quartz and calcite. X-ray fluorescence analyses of samples indicated that the most important major oxide compositions of the soil and airborne dust samples were SiO2, Al2O3, CaO, MgO, Na2O, and Fe2O3, demonstrating similar percentages for soil and dust samples. Estimation of Enrichment Factors for all studied trace elements in soil samples showed Br, Cl, Mo, S, Zn, and Hg with EF values higher than 10.

ConclusionThe findings, showed the possible correlation between the degree of anthropogenic soil pollutants, and the remains of Iraq-Iran war. The results expressed sand and dust storm emission potential in this area, was illustrated with measured vertical mass fluxes by COMSALT.

KeywordsIran RDI COMSALT Atterberg limits Particle size distribution Wind erosion Mineralogical composition Soil and dust chemistry AbbreviationsAASAtomic absorption spectrophotometer

CdContamination degree

CfContamination factor and degree of contamination

COMSALTComprehensive model of steady state saltation

EFEnrichment factor

EPAEnvironmental Protection Agency

I-geoGeo accumulation index

OCOrganic carbon content

OMOrganic matter content

RDIReconnaissance Drought Index

RDIstStandardized Reconnaissance Drought Index

USDAUnited State Department of Agriculture

XRDX-ray diffraction

XRFX-ray fluorescence

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Author: Parya Broomandi - Bahram Dabir - Babak Bonakdarpour - Yousef Rashidi


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