Control of standing balance at leaning postures with functional neuromuscular stimulation following spinal cord injuryReportar como inadecuado

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Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing

pp 1–14

First Online: 24 July 2017Received: 30 January 2017Accepted: 09 July 2017


This study systematically explored the potential of applying feedback control of functional neuromuscular stimulation FNS for stabilizing various erect and leaning standing postures after spinal cord injury SCI. Perturbations ranging from 2 to 6% body weight were applied to two subjects with motor complete thoracic level SCI who were proficient at standing with implanted multichannel neural stimulators to activate the ankle, knee, hip and trunk muscles. The subjects stood with four different postures: erect, forward, forward-right and forward-left. Repeatable and controlled perturbations were applied in the forward, backward, rightward and leftward directions by linear actuators pulling on ropes attached to the subjects via a belt worn just above the waist. Upper extremity UE forces exerted on a stationary walker were measured with load cells attached to the handles. A feedback controller based on center of pressure CoP varied the stimulation levels to the otherwise paralyzed muscles so as to resist the effects of the perturbations. The effect of the feedback controller was compared to the case where only open-loop baseline stimulation was applied. This was done in terms of: a maximum resultant UE force exerted by the subjects on the walker, b maximum resultant CoP overshoot and c CoP root-mean-square deviation RMSD. Feedback control resulted in significant reductions in the mean values of the majority of outcome values compared to baseline open-loop stimulation. Maximum resultant UE force was reduced by as much as 50% in one of the postures for one of the subjects. RMSD and maximum CoPs were reduced by as much as 75 and 70%, respectively, with feedback control. These results indicate that feedback control can be used to reject destabilizing disturbances in individuals with SCI using FNS not only for erect postures but also for leaning postures typically adopted during reaching while attempting various activities of daily living.

KeywordsSpinal cord injury Standing balance Posture controller Functional neuromuscular stimulation Feedback control of standing postures  Download fulltext PDF

Autor: Musa L. Audu - Brooke M. Odle - Ronald J. Triolo


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