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Precision Agriculture

, Volume 18, Issue 4, pp 574–614

First Online: 20 October 2016

Abstract

Feeding the growing global population requires an annual increase in food production. This requirement suggests an increase in the use of pesticides, which represents an unsustainable chemical load for the environment. To reduce pesticide input and preserve the environment while maintaining the necessary level of food production, the efficiency of relevant processes must be drastically improved. Within this context, this research strived to design, develop, test and assess a new generation of automatic and robotic systems for effective weed and pest control aimed at diminishing the use of agricultural chemical inputs, increasing crop quality and improving the health and safety of production operators. To achieve this overall objective, a fleet of heterogeneous ground and aerial robots was developed and equipped with innovative sensors, enhanced end-effectors and improved decision control algorithms to cover a large variety of agricultural situations. This article describes the scientific and technical objectives, challenges and outcomes achieved in three common crops.

KeywordsPest control Agricultural robots Autonomous robots Fleets of robots Multi-robot systems AbbreviationsACAlternating current

APIApplication programming interface

BBCHBiologische bundesanstalt, bundessortenamt und chemische industrie

BSBase station

CANController area network

CUDACompute unified device architecture

DCDirect current

ENEuropean standards

ExifExchangeable image file format

FMFourier-Mellin

FPGAField programmable gate array

MSSMulti-robot supervision system

GISGeographic information system

GNSSGlobal navigation satellite system

GPRSGeneral packet radio service

GPSGlobal positioning system

GUIGraphical user interface

HLDMSHigh-level decision making system

ICTInformation and communication technologies

IECInternational electro-technical commission

IPInternet protocol

IMUInertial measurement unit

ISOInternational organization for standardization

ITUInternational Telecommunications Union

LEDLight-emitting diode

LPGLiquefied petroleum gas

NIRNear infrared

OBIAObject-based image analysis

PIDProportional–integral–derivative controller

PLCProgrammable logic controller

PTOPower take-off

PWCPhysical-weed-control

ROIRegion of interest

RS-232Recommended standard 232

RTKReal time kinematics

SILSafety integrity level

TCP-UDPTransmission control protocol-user datagram protocol

UAVUnmanned aerial vehicle

UGVUnmanned ground vehicle

USBUniversal serial bus

VRAVariable rate application

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Autor: Pablo Gonzalez-de-Santos - Angela Ribeiro - Cesar Fernandez-Quintanilla - Francisca Lopez-Granados - Michael Brandstoetter -

Fuente: https://link.springer.com/



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