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BMC Medical Research Methodology

, 17:118

Data collection, quality, and reporting


BackgroundIllness perceptions involve the personal beliefs that patients have about their illness and may influence health behaviours considerably. Since an instrument to measure these perceptions for Malay population in Malaysia is lacking, we translated and examined the psychometric properties of the Malay version of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire MBIPQ in adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

MethodsThe MBIPQ has nine items, all use a 0–10 response scale, except the ninth item about causal factors, which is an open-ended item. A standard procedure was used to translate and adapt the English BIPQ into Malay language. Construct validity was examined comparing item scores and scores on the Diabetes Management Self-Efficacy Scale, the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale, the World Health Organization Quality of Life-brief, the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire, the 17-item Diabetes Distress Scale, HbA1c and the presence of complications. In addition, 2-week and 4-week test-retest reliability were studied.

ResultsA total of 312 patients completed the MBIPQ. Out of this, 97 and 215 patients completed the 2- or 4-weeks test-retest reliability questionnaire, respectively. Moderate inter-items correlations were observed between illness perception dimensions r = −0.31 to 0.53. MBIPQ items showed the expected correlations with self-efficacy r = 0.35, medication adherence r = 0.29, quality of life r = −0.17 to 0.31 and depressive symptoms r = −0.18 to 0.21. People with severe diabetes-related distress also were more concern t-test = 4.01, p < 0.001 and experienced lower personal control t-test = 2.07, p = 0.031. People with any diabetes-related complication perceived the consequences as more serious t-test = 2.04, p = 0.044. The 2-week and 4-week test-retest reliabilities varied between ICCagreement 0.39 to 0.70 and 0.58 to 0.78, respectively.

ConclusionsThe psychometric properties of items in the MBIPQ are moderate. The MBIPQ showed good cross-cultural validity and moderate construct validity. Test-retest reliability was moderate. Despite the moderate psychometric properties, the MBIPQ may be useful in clinical practice as it is a useful instrument to elicit and communicate on patient’s personal thoughts and feelings. Future research is needed to establish its responsiveness and predictive validity.

Trial NCT02730754 registered on March 29, 2016; NCT02730078 registered on March 29, 2016.

KeywordsBeliefs Brief illness perception questionnaire Validity Illness perceptions Type 2 diabetes mellitus Self-efficacy Medication adherence Quality of life Emotional distress HbA1c AbbreviationsBIPQThe 9-item Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire

DDS-1717-item Diabetes Distress Scale

DMSESDiabetes Management Self Efficacy Scale

IPQ-RIllness Perception Questionnaire-Revised

MBIPQMalay version of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire

MMAS-88-item Morisky Medication Adherence

PHQ-99-item Patient Health Questionnaire

T2DMType 2 diabetes mellitus

WHOQOL-BREFWorld Health Organization Quality of Life-brief

Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article doi:10.1186-s12874-017-0394-5 contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Autor: Boon-How Chew - Rimke C. Vos - Monique Heijmans - Sazlina Shariff-Ghazali - Aaron Fernandez - Guy E. H. M. Rutten


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