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Journal of Nanobiotechnology

, 13:93

Opportunities and risks of nanomaterials NRP 64

Abstract

BackgroundThe use of gold nanoparticles Au-NP based medical applications is rising due to their unique physical and chemical properties. Diagnostic devices based on Au-NP are already available in the market or are in clinical trials and Au-NP based therapeutics and theranostics combined diagnostic and treatment modality are in the research and development phase. Currently, no information on Au-NP consumption, material flows to and concentrations in the environment are available. Therefore, we estimated prospective maximal consumption of Au-NP from medical applications in the UK and US. We then modelled the Au-NP flows post-use and predicted their environmental concentrations. Furthermore, we assessed the environment risks of Au-NP by comparing the predicted environmental concentrations PECs with ecological threshold PNEC values.

ResultsThe mean annual estimated consumption of Au-NP from medical applications is 540 kg for the UK and 2700 kg for the US. Among the modelled concentrations of Au-NP in environmental compartments, the mean annual PEC of Au-NP in sludge for both the UK and US was estimated at 124 and 145 μg kg, respectively. The mean PEC in surface water was estimated at 468 and 4.7 pg L, respectively for the UK and US. The NOEC value for the water compartment ranged from 0.12 up to 26,800 μg L, with most values in the range of 1000 μg L.

ConclusionThe results using the current set of data indicate that the environmental risk from Au-NP used in nanomedicine in surface waters and from agricultural use of biosolids is minimal in the near future, especially because we have used a worst-case use assessment. More Au-NP toxicity studies are needed for the soil compartment.

KeywordsGold nanoparticles Nanomedicine Probabilistic modelling Species sensitivity distribution PEC PNEC AbbreviationsAFassessment factors

APCDsair pollution control devices

DEFRADepartment for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs

ECHAEuropean Chemicals Agency

ERAenvironmental risk assessment

ESPselectrostatic precipitators

EUEuropean Union

Au-NPgold nanoparticles

HandBhealthcare and biological

HIV-AIDShuman immunodeficiency virus-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

HMCIWhazardous medical-clinical-infectious waste

HONEChighest-observed-no-effect-concentration

LECxlethal adverse effect concentration, when x % of the test organisms die or are adversely effected

LOEClowest observed effect concentration

MRImagnetic resonance imaging

MWIsmunicipal waste incinerators

NOECno-observed-effect concentration

OTCover-the-counter

PAMAMpolyamidoamine

PECpredicted environment concentration

PNECpredicted no-effect concentration

pSSDprobabilistic species sensitivity distribution

REACHRegistration, Evaluation, Authorisation and restriction of Chemicals

SIsupporting information

TCtransfer coefficients

UKUnited Kingdom

USUnited States of America

USFDAUnited States Food and Drug Administration

USEPAUnited States Environment Protection Agency

WWwaste water

WIPswaste incineration plants

Indrani Mahapatra and Tian Yin Sun are joint first authors.

Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article doi:10.1186-s12951-015-0150-0 contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Autor: Indrani Mahapatra - Tian Yin Sun - Julian R. A. Clark - Peter J. Dobson - Konrad Hungerbuehler - Richard Owen - Bernd N

Fuente: https://link.springer.com/







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