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BioMedical Engineering OnLine

, 13:145

First Online: 18 October 2014Received: 01 August 2014Accepted: 05 October 2014


BackgroundThe switching exercise e.g., Interval Training has been a commonly used exercise protocol nowadays for the enhancement of exerciser’s cardiovascular fitness. The current difficulty for simulating human onset and offset exercise responses regarding the switching exercise is to ensure the continuity of the outputs during onset-offset switching, as well as to accommodate the exercise intensities at both onset and offset of exercise.

MethodsTwenty-one untrained healthy subjects performed treadmill trials following both single switching exercise e.g., single-cycle square wave protocol and repetitive switching exercise e.g., interval training protocol. During exercise, heart rate HR and oxygen uptake VO 2 were monitored and recorded by a portable gas analyzer K4b , Cosmed. An equivalent single-supply switching resistance-capacitor RC circuit model was proposed to accommodate the observed variations of the onset and offset dynamics. The single-cycle square wave protocol was utilized to investigate the respective dynamics at onset and offset of exercise with the aerobic zone of approximate 70% - 77% of HR max, and verify the adaption feature for the accommodation of different exercise strengths. The design of the interval training protocol was to verify the transient properties during onset-offset switching. A verification method including Root-mean-square-error RMSE and correlation coefficient, was introduced for comparisons between the measured data and model outputs.

ResultsThe experimental results from single-cycle square wave exercises clearly confirm that the onset and offset characteristics for both HR and VO 2 are distinctly different. Based on the experimental data for both single and repetitive square wave exercise protocols, the proposed model was then presented to simulate the onset and offset exercise responses, which were well correlated indicating good agreement with observations.

ConclusionsCompared with existing works, this model can accommodate the different exercise strengths at both onset and offset of exercise, while also depicting human onset and offset exercise responses, and guarantee the continuity of outputs during onset-offset switching. A unique adaption feature by allowing the time constant

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and steady state gain to re-shift back to their original states, more closely mimics the different exercise strengths during normal daily exercise activities.

KeywordsHeart rate Oxygen uptake Mathematical modeling Cardiovascular system Single-cycle square wave Interval training Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article doi:10.1186-1475-925X-13-145 contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Author: Yi Zhang - Azzam Haddad - Steven W Su - Branko G Celler - Aaron J Coutts - Rob Duffield - Cheyne E Donges - Hung T Ng


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