Evaluation of evidence that the organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos is a potential persistent organic pollutant POP or persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic PBTReport as inadecuate

Evaluation of evidence that the organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos is a potential persistent organic pollutant POP or persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic PBT - Download this document for free, or read online. Document in PDF available to download.

Environmental Sciences Europe

, 26:29

First Online: 18 October 2014Received: 03 January 2014Accepted: 06 October 2014


A number of chemicals, including several organochlorine pesticides, have been identified as persistent organic pollutants POPs. Here, the properties of chlorpyrifos CPY; CAS No. 2921-88-2 and its active metabolite, chlorpyrifos oxon CPYO; CAS No. 5598-15-2, are assessed relative to criteria for classification of compounds as persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic substances PBTs. The manufacture and use of POPs are regulated at the global level by the Stockholm Convention SC and the UN-ECE POP Protocol. Properties that result in a chemical being classified as a POP, along with long-range transport LRT, while understood in a generic way, often vary among jurisdictions. Under the SC, POPs are identified by a combination of bulk intensive properties, including persistence and biomagnification, and an extensive property, hazard. While it is known that CPY is inherently hazardous, what is important is the aggregate potential for exposure in various environmental matrices. Instead of classifying chemicals as PBT based solely on a few simple, numeric criteria, it is suggested that an overall weight of evidence WoE approach, which can also consider the unique properties of the substance, be applied. While CPY and its transformation products are not currently being evaluated as POPs under the SC, CPY is widely used globally and some have suggested that its properties should be evaluated in the context of the SC, especially in locations remote from application. In Europe, all pesticides are being evaluated for properties that contribute to persistence, bioaccumulation, and toxicity under the aegis of EC Regulation No. 1107-2009: -Concerning the Placing of Plant Protection Products on the Market.- The properties that contribute to the P, LRT, B, and T of CPY were reviewed, and a WoE approach that included an evaluation of the strength of the evidence and the relevance of the data to the classification of CPY and CPYO as POPs or PBTs was applied. While toxic under the simple classification system used in EC Regulation No. 1107-2009, based on its intensive properties and results of monitoring and simulation modeling, it was concluded that there is no justification for classifying CPY or its metabolite, CPYO, as a POP or PBT.

KeywordsStockholm Convention EC Regulation No. 1107-2009 Chlorpyrifos oxon Long-range transport AbbreviationsBbioaccumulative

BAFbioaccumulation factor

BCFbioconcentration factor

bmbody mass

BMFbiomagnification factor

BSAFbiota-sediment accumulation factor

COCchemical of concern substance of concern


CPYOchlorpyrifos oxon

CTDcharacteristic travel distance

CTTcharacteristic travel time

KOCwater-soil partition coefficient corrected for the amount of organic carbon in the soil

KOWoctanol-water partition coefficient

l. ms.lipid mass

LC50lethal concentration for 50% of test individuals

LRTlong-range transport

NOECno-observed-effect concentration



PBTpersistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic

POPpersistent organic pollutant

REACHRegistration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals

SCStockholm Convention




TCDD-Py2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-1,4-dioxino-2,3-b:5,6-b- dipyridine



TMFtrophic magnification factor

UNEPUnited Nations Environment Programme

Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article doi:10.1186-s12302-014-0029-y contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Author: John P Giesy - Keith R Solomon - Don Mackay - Julie Anderson

Source: https://link.springer.com/

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