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Abstract: In this thesis we investigate the stationary properties and formation processof a class of nontopological solitons, namely Q-balls. We explore both thequantum-mechanical and classical stability of Q-balls that appear inpolynomial, gravity-mediated and gauge-mediated potentials. By presenting ourdetailed analytic and numerical results, we show that absolutely stablenon-thermal Q-balls may exist in any kinds of the above potentials. The lattertwo types of potentials are motivated by Affleck-Dine baryogenesis, which isone of the best candidate theories to solve the present baryon asymmetry. Byincluding quantum corrections in the scalar potentials, a naturally formedcondensate in a post-inflationary era can be classically unstable and fragmentinto Q-balls that can be long-lived or decay into the usual baryons-leptons aswell as the lightest supersymmeric particles. This scenario naturally providesthe baryon asymmetry and the similarity of the energy density between baryonsand dark matter in the Universe. Introducing detailed lattice simulations, weargue that the formation, thermalisation and stability of these Q-balls dependon the properties of models involved with supersymmetry breaking.



Autor: Mitsuo I. Tsumagari

Fuente: https://arxiv.org/







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