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Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology

, 5:51

Animal reproductive biology


Establishment of pregnancy in pigs involves maintaining progesterone secretion from the corpora lutea in addition to regulating a sensitive interplay between the maternal immune system and attachment of the rapidly expanding trophoblast for nutrient absorption. The peri-implantation period of rapid trophoblastic elongation followed by attachment to the maternal uterine endometrium is critical for establishing a sufficient placental-uterine interface for subsequent nutrient transport for fetal survival to term, but is also marked by the required conceptus release of factors involved with stimulating uterine secretion of histotroph and modulation of the maternal immune system. Many endometrial genes activated by the conceptus secretory factors stimulate a tightly controlled proinflammatory response within the uterus. A number of the cytokines released by the elongating conceptuses stimulate inducible transcription factors such as nuclear factor kappa B NFKB potentially regulating the maternal uterine proinflammatory and immune response. This review will establish the current knowledge for the role of conceptus cytokine production and release in early development and establishment of pregnancy in the pig.

KeywordsCytokines Embryo development Porcine conceptus Pregnancy Prostaglandins uterus AbbreviationsBMP4Bone morphogenic protein 4

BMPR2Bone morphogenic protein receptor 2

CLCorpora lutea

EGEEpidermal growth factor

EGFREpidermal growth factor receptor

ESREstrogen receptor

ESTExpressed sequence tags

FGFFibroblast growth factor

FGFR2Fibroblast growth factor 2 receptor

GEGlandular epithelium

IGFInsulin-like growth factor

IGF-1RInsulin-like growth factor 1 receptor


IRFInterferon regulatory factor


IL-6RInterleukin 6 receptor

IL-1β2Interleukin 1β conceptus form

IL-1RAPInterleukin 1 receptor accessory protein

IL-1RantInterleukin 1receptor antagonist

IL-1RT1Interleukin 1 receptor type 1

LIFLeukemia inhibitory factor

LIFRLeukemia inhibitory factor receptor

LELuminal epithelium

Mx1Interferon-induced GTP-binding protein

NFKBNuclear factor κB

PRProgesterone receptor


PTGS2Prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase 2

STATSignal transducer and activator of transcript

TGFβTransforming growth factor beta

TGFBRTransforming growth factor beta receptor 1

VEGFVascular endothelial growth factor

VEGFRVascular endothelial growth factor receptor

Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article doi:10.1186-2049-1891-5-51 contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Autor: Rodney D Geisert - Matthew C Lucy - Jeffrey J Whyte - Jason W Ross - Daniel J Mathew


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