The relationship of parental rearing behavior and resilience as well as psychological symptoms in a representative sampleReportar como inadecuado

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Health and Quality of Life Outcomes

, 12:95

First Online: 07 November 2014Received: 14 June 2013Accepted: 11 February 2014


BackgroundRecalled parental rearing behavior is one of the factors influencing the strength of resilience. However, it is unclear whether resilience is a relatively stable personality trait or has a relational character whose protective strength changes over the course of life. Therefore, the association between recalled parental rearing and resilience as well as symptoms of anxiety and depression was investigated in respect to age and gender.

MethodsN = 4,782 healthy subjects aged 14-92 M = 48.1 years were selected by the random-route sampling method. In this sample, an ultra-short form of the Recalled Parental Rearing Behavior Questionnaire, the German short version of the resilience scale, and two screening instruments for depression and anxiety PHQ-2, GAD-2 were filled out. Structural equation modelling was used to analyze the data estimated with the maximum likelihood method approach.

ResultsThe data revealed that rejection and punishment were clearly associated with lower resilience. Moreover, resilience had a strong connection to the symptoms of anxiety and depression. Resilience had the same quality of association in both men and women with respect to anxiety and depression. Furthermore, the effect of resilience did not vary across several age groups even though challenges may differ over a lifetime.

ConclusionRecalled parental rearing behavior such as rejection and punishment as well as control and overprotection exert a significant association on the strength of resilience. Resilience has an effect independent of gender and does not affect people of different age groups differently.

KeywordsRecalled parental rearing behavior Resilience Anxiety Depression Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article doi:10.1186-1477-7525-12-95 contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Autor: Katja Petrowski - Elmar Brähler - Markus Zenger


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