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International Urogynecology Journal

, Volume 25, Issue 12, pp 1699–1706

First Online: 26 July 2014Received: 13 March 2014Accepted: 26 May 2014


Introduction and hypothesisGenitourinary fistula poses a public health challenge in areas where women have inadequate access to quality emergency obstetric care. Fistulas typically develop during prolonged, obstructed labor, but providers can also inadvertently cause a fistula when performing obstetric or gynecological surgery.

MethodsThis retrospective study analyzes 805 iatrogenic fistulas from a series of 5,959 women undergoing genitourinary fistula repair in 11 countries between 1994 and 2012. Injuries fall into three categories: ureteric, vault, and vesico-utero-cervico-vaginal. This analysis considers the frequency and characteristics of each type of fistula and the risk factors associated with iatrogenic fistula development.

ResultsIn this large series, 13.2 % of genitourinary fistula repairs were for injuries caused by provider error. A range of cadres conducted procedures resulting in iatrogenic fistula. Four out of five iatrogenic fistulas developed following surgery for obstetric complications: cesarean section, ruptured uterus repair, or hysterectomy for ruptured uterus. Others developed during gynecological procedures, most commonly hysterectomy. Vesico-utero-cervico-vaginal fistulas were the most common 43.6 %, followed by ureteric injuries 33.9 % and vault fistulas 22.5 %. One quarter of women with iatrogenic fistulas had previously undergone a laparotomy, nearly always a cesarean section. Among these women, one quarter had undergone more than one previous cesarean section.

ConclusionsWomen with previous cesarean sections are at an increased risk of iatrogenic injury. Work environments must be adequate to reduce surgical error. Training must emphasize the importance of optimal surgical techniques, obstetric decision-making, and alternative ways to deliver dead babies. Iatrogenic fistulas should be recognized as a distinct genitourinary fistula category.

KeywordsCesarean section Genitourinary fistula Hysterectomy Iatrogenic Ureteric injury An erratum to this article can be found at http:-dx.doi.org-10.1007-s00192-014-2531-6.

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Autor: Thomas J. I. P. Raassen - Carrie J. Ngongo - Marietta M. Mahendeka

Fuente: https://link.springer.com/

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