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EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking

, 2014:208

Radar and Sonar Networks


To improve the localization accuracy in multipath environments, this paper presents an effective localization approach with the utilization of reference tags. In this approach, an improved k-nearest neighbor k-NN algorithm is proposed based on radio-frequency RF phases. The traditional k-NN algorithm only focuses on the weighting factors of the coordinates of the selected reference tags, while the improved k-NN algorithm aims at the estimation of direct distance from a reader antenna to a target tag. Then, the location is estimated by linear least squares with a new reference selection scheme. Simulation results show that our approach is superior to the traditional localization approaches under multipath environments. In addition, we conclude that phase has the superiority over strength in the selection of reference tags for range estimation, and range estimation is more accurate than coordinate estimation with k-NN algorithm for localization.

KeywordsIndoor environments RF phase Reference tags Improved k-nearest neighbor algorithm Linear least squares AbbreviationsUHFultrahigh frequency

RFIDradio-frequency identification

k-NNk-nearest neighbor

LLSlinear least squares

TDOAtime difference of arrival

RSSIreceived signal strength indicators




CDFcumulative distribution function

SNRsignal-to-noise ratio.

Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article doi:10.1186-1687-1499-2014-208 contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Author: Yang Zhao - Kaihua Liu - Yongtao Ma - Zhuo Li


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