The impact of polyunsaturated fatty acid-based dietary supplements on disease biomarkers in a metabolic syndrome-diabetes populationReport as inadecuate

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Lipids in Health and Disease

, 13:196

First Online: 16 December 2014Received: 29 August 2014Accepted: 11 December 2014


BackgroundIngestion of polyunsaturated fatty acids PUFAs has been proposed to influence several chronic diseases including coronary heart disease CHD and type-2 diabetes T2D. There is strong evidence that omega-3 n-3 PUFAs provide protection against CHD and biomarkers of atherosclerosis. In contrast, there is more limited and inconsistent data for T2D. Few studies have examined the impact of n-3 PUFA-containing botanical oils on T2D.

MethodsFifty-nine subjects with early-stageT2D or metabolic syndrome participated in an 8-week, randomized, single-blind, parallel intervention study and were provided PUFA-containing oils. Individuals received either corn oil CO, a botanical oil BO combination borage Borago officinalis L.-echium oil Echium plantagineum L. or fish oil FO. The BO combination was enriched in alpha-linolenic, gamma-linolenic, and stearidonic acids and the FO in eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. Serum fatty acids and other serum lipidstriglycerides and total, HDL and LDL cholesterol, as well as markers of inflammation leptin, and C-reactive protein and glucose regulation glucose and hemoglobin A1c were assessed from fasting participants at baseline and after the intervention.

ResultsCompliance was verified by expected increases in specific PUFAs in each of the three oil arms. Participants in the CO group showed no differences in serum lipids, markers of inflammation or glucose regulation between pre- and post-treatment measures. Supplementation with BO significantly lowered total and LDL cholesterol levels and FO reduced serum triglycerides, hemoglobin A1c and increased HDL-cholesterol.

ConclusionShort-term dietary supplementation with BO and FO improved biomarkers associated with T2D-metabolic syndrome.

Trial NCT01145066

KeywordsDiabetes Metabolic syndrome Polyunsaturated fatty acids PUFAs n-3 fatty acids n-6 fatty acids Eicosapentaenoic acid EPA Docosahexaenoic acid DHA Fish oil FO Botanical oil BO; borage + echium AbbreviationsALAAlpha-linolenic acid

ARAArachidonic acid

BMIBody mass index

BOBotanical oil borage + echium oil combination

hs-CRPHigh sensitivity C-reactive protein

CHDCoronary heart disease

COCorn oil

DGLADihomo-gamma-linolenic acid

DHADocosahexaenoic acid

DPADocosapentaenoic acid

EPAEicosapentaenoic acid

FAMEFatty acid methyl esters

FOFish oil

GLAGamma-linolenic acid

LALinoleic acid

LcLong chain



NCEP-ATPIIINational Cholesterol Education Program-Third Adult Treatment Panel

NSAIDNonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug

PUFAPolyunsaturated fatty acid

SDAStearidonic acid

T2DType 2 diabetes.

Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article doi:10.1186-1476-511X-13-196 contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Author: Tammy C Lee - Priscilla Ivester - Austin G Hester - Susan Sergeant - Larry Douglas Case - Timothy Morgan - Ethel O Koub


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