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Lipids in Health and Disease

, 13:194

First Online: 16 December 2014Received: 09 July 2014Accepted: 11 December 2014


BackgroundComparable to commercial expensive high-fat diets, cholesterol-cholate-butterfat CCB diet has also been used to induce hyperlipidemia in rats. Our objective was to explore its influence on multiple organs. Consequence of fasting was also analysed.

MethodsRats in groups 1 and 2 received normal diet ND whereas groups 3 and 4 received CCB-diet. Food was withdrawn daily for two hours from groups 2 ND-F and 4 CCB-F. Blood was collected at fourth and sixth week for biochemical estimation; Morris water maze was done in the sixth week for learning ability and memory; after which aortae were isolated for vascular reactivity.

ResultsApart from hyperlipidemia, CCB also induced hyperglycemia with marked increase in hepatic enzymes: gamma-glutamyl transferase GGT, alanine and aspartate aminotransferase ALT and AST; and vascular biomarkers: uric acid UA, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase ALP. Isolated aortae, pre-contracted with phenylephrine, were less responsive to acetylcholine indicating endothelial dysfunction – serum nitric oxide NO production was limited with subsequent inhibition of endothelial NO synthase. CCB diet also compromised learning ability. CCB-coupled fasting potentiated hyperlipidemia but prevented memory-loss.

ConclusionWe introduce CCB-diet for multi-organ dysfunction in rats, and propose its use for research on cardiovascular diseases and associated manifestations involving immense interplay of integrated pathways.

KeywordsFasting Liver function Vascular function Memory AbbreviationsAChAcetylcholine

AIAtherogenic index

ALPAlkaline phosphatase

ALTAlanine aminotransferase

ASTAspartate aminotransferase

AST-ALTRatio of AST and ALT


CCB-FCholesterol-cholate-butterfat with fasting

CVDCardiovascular disease

eNOSEndothelial nitric oxide synthase

GGTGamma-glutamyl transferase

HDLHigh-density lipoprotein

LDLLow-density lipoprotein

LDL-HDLRatio of LDL and HDL

MWMMorris water maze

NDNormal diet

ND-FNormal diet fasting

NONitric oxide



TCTotal cholesterol

TC-HDLRatio of TC and HDL


UAUric acid

VLDLVery-low-density lipoprotein.

Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article doi:10.1186-1476-511X-13-194 contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Autor: Humaira Jamshed - Jamshed Arslan - Anwar-ul-Hassan Gilani


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